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Joshua Jackson isn't exactly having the easiest time dating again after being in a long-term relationship. The year-old Affair star and actress Diane Kruger split in July after 10 years together, and during his appearance on The Ellen DeGeneres Show , airing Tuesday, Jackson admits that the dating scene is pretty different these days. There's no more talking to people anymore. Still, the handsome actor has a sense of humor about his situation, joking, "What would my Match.
Norman Reedus & Diane Kruger are spotted kissing in public
The data upon which the results and conclusions are based will not be shared for commercial copyright reasons. Some of the data are on sale on commercial basis, some available for free download, and some were obtained from public organisations in South Africa on condition that they are used for this study only and not be availed to third parties. The coexistence of woody vegetation and grass is a key characteristic of savanna ecological balance.
Gains in woody vegetation at the expense of grass can lead to changes in grazer and browser carrying capacities on the savannas. This study examined long-term change in woody cover at four study sites representative of the geology and rainfall in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. The imagery datasets of the respective study sites were georeferenced to the UTM projection. Woody cover on the imagery was enhanced using texture analysis, and mapped by unsupervised classification of the texture images using the K -means clustering algorithm.
Change in woody cover was mapped using Boolean addition Geographic Information System overlay analysis. The northern granites and northern basalts sites, on the other hand, had gains in woody cover over the analysis period. The location context-specific factors of fire frequency and elephant density, and not rainfall fluctuations, explained most of the change in woody cover.
The results point to the need for location context-specific management of fire and elephant concentrations. The changes in woody cover are likely to have effects on the grazer and browser carrying capacities of the savannas in the Kruger National Park. Savannas are characterised by a coexistence of woody vegetation and grass Higgins et al. They support a large diversity of ungulate species du Toit and Cumming , many of which are grazers.
An increase in savanna woody vegetation at the expense of grass can, therefore, potentially result in reduced carrying capacity for grazers in favour of browsers, and vice versa. As the largest conserved savanna area in South Africa the Kruger National Park KNP plays a significant role in the conservation of savanna biodiversity, and reduction in its carrying capacity for grazer or browser species threatens the conservation effort.
A number of factors influence the abundance of woody vegetation on savannas. However, fire and herbivores are the primary determinants of the woody vegetation Sankaran et al. Fire is a major disturbance to savanna woody vegetation through physical damage to woody plants. The effects of fire vary depending on the characteristics of the fire in terms of fire season time of year , fire frequency and intensity.
If sufficiently frequent in relation to the growth and regeneration rates of fire-intolerant woody species, fire prevents them from reaching high abundance Skarpe Herbivores, through physical damage, have effects on variables like species composition, height, canopy size, stem diameter, and density Levick and Rogers ; Wigley et al. Compared to other herbivores, mega-herbivores like elephants have been pointed out to have the largest impact on the woody vegetation de Beer et al.
Rainfall and soil properties also influence savanna woody vegetation Sankaran et al. The woody vegetation and grass compete for water and soil nutrients February and Higgins ; Rossatto et al. Factors that can help tip the balance in favour of either grass or woody vegetation can have a significant influence on savanna woody vegetation. Skarpe suggests that in arid and semi-arid savannas competition for soil moisture is the main determinant of the woody component. In that situation the elimination of the grass as a competitor, e.
Experiments by Kulmatiski and Beard , on the other hand, showed that without changing the total amount of precipitation, small increases in precipitation intensity can push water deeper into the soil, increase savanna aboveground woody plant growth and decrease grass growth. The effect of the determinants of woody vegetation structure and abundance varies depending on the savanna site.
Thus, savannas can be either climate or disturbance dependent ecosystems depending on the environment in which they are located De Michele et al. In the Kruger National Park, elephants and fire have been recognised to have significant effects on the woody vegetation Trollope et al. Owen-Smith et al. Enslin et al. Shackelton and Scholes determined that increasing fire frequency significantly decreased woody basal area, biomass, density, height, mean stem circumference, and number of stems per plant in the KNP; while the proportion of regenerative stems increased with increasing fire frequency.
Fires that occur in the late dry season i. From plots in the KNP that had been exposed to long-term experimental burning Higgins et al. In the long term, continued disturbance of the savanna woody vegetation due to one or more of the influencing factors could result in change in woody vegetation cover. Historical imagery serves as a data source to enable the detection of this change. Historical aerial photographs can supplement satellite imagery for this purpose, given that satellite imagery is only available since the early s, and high spatial resolution satellite images only since the late s.
Historical aerial photographs have the advantage of high spatial resolution, while satellite images are advantageous over aerial photographs in that they enable synoptic coverage of large areas that would require multiple aerial photographs to cover. A number of studies analysing change in woody cover on savannas have used historical aerial photographs either as a photo only imagery time series e.
Hudak and Wessman ; Fensham and Fairfax or in combination with satellite images e. Hudak and Wessman Appropriate algorithms to delineate the woody vegetation on the imagery are required, particularly when a linkage between historical aerial photographs and satellite images is being established. Analyses of change in woody cover in the KNP using historical imagery have yielded mixed trends.
Using manual photo interpretation Trollope et al. The results indicated that there were no significant changes in vegetation located on granitic soils between and , whereas a moderate decline occurred in the areas with basaltic soils. Eckhardt et al. This study assessed change in savanna woody cover at large study sites in the Kruger National Park, in a GIS framework that facilitated quantitative analysis.
The geology of the KNP broadly consists of basalts in the eastern half and granites in the west. The KNP research supersites are representative of these rainfall and geology characteristics Smit et al. The northern study sites Ngwenyeni and Mooiplaas receive lower rainfall than the southern sites Nhlowa, Stevenson-Hamilton.
The Nhlowa and Mooiplaas sites are on basalts, while the Ngwenyeni and Stevenson-Hamilton sites are on granites. Field quantification of woody cover was undertaken in and at the four study sites, in order to derive data on woody cover for use in image interpretation. Rather than visual estimation of woody cover as has been employed by some studies, more reliable quantification was sought. Therefore, a method for estimating the total area covered by woody canopies in the sample plots was devised.
The canopy diameter d for each woody individual tree, shrub in the plot was determined by spreading measuring tape either above for shrubs or below the canopy. Treating the canopy as circular, the d value then gave a radius, r i. These coordinates were then used in locating the sample plots on images of the respective study sites. Woody cover in the KNP has been shown to vary depending on topographic position, with the valleys having more woody cover Gertenbach The topographic location of the field sample plots was, therefore, purposefully varied in order to represent woody cover in valley, crest and mid-slope positions.
Therefore, purposive sampling was employed in the field, with the goal of representing these topographic positions in the sample data. The overall layout of the sample plots at each of the study sites approximated linear transects. Logistics and the time-consuming nature of the field work limited the total number of sample plots and necessitated separate fieldwork excursions to the study sites during and The final total number of sample plots was These historical aerial photographs are all panchromatic, i.
Aerial photographs generally have high spatial resolution. Therefore, SPOT images were judged to be more ideal for use in conjunction with the photographs than Landsat images that date back to the s, based on the spatial resolution criterion. Therefore, SPOT images of the late s were selected, and then images from the late s so as to approximate the decade inter-image date sequence of the and aerial photographs.
The final set of imagery was SPOT images acquired close to or in the same season immediately after the respective dates of the woody cover quantification fieldwork in and at the respective sites. Panchromatic SPOT images spectral sensitivity 0. The aerial photographs had April, June and August dates in the respective years.
As a consequence, the selection of SPOT images sought images that were as close as possible to the photo acquisition months, within the constraints of image availability on the SANSA catalogue. Not all the aerial photographs listed by Smit et al. The overlap areas were rather problematic because of image parallax. Image parallax introduced an apparent change in relative positions of woody individuals due to change in the photographing station along the flight strips, resulting in some woody individuals being obscured on one of the overlapping photos.
Therefore, stereopairs of photographs were avoided where possible, with synoptic and complete coverage of the study site as the overriding criteria. Excluding the overlap areas also helped avoid regions of the photographs with high relief displacement. Relief displacement resulted in features with height e. For some of the study sites, the aerial photographs listed by Smit et al. Nearly all the study sites had incomplete photographic coverage on at least one date.
The portions of the study sites without photographic coverage see Fig. For the Nhlowa site the photos depicted extensive burning of the site and were, therefore, not used in the analysis. At the 1: However, for the Mooiplaas site the photograph was apparently at the northern edge of photography job number Therefore, only the southern half of the site was covered, as could be verified on a flight diagram obtained from the NGI.
Coverage of unprocessed image subsets of the study sites shown in Fig. Since the scanning was performed at the NGI technical issues at this stage, such as the optimisation of tonal variation, could not directly be controlled. In some similar work e. Hudak and Wessman the scanner resolution is altered depending on the photo scale. The output pixel grain size on scanned aerial photographs can be computed using the formula in Eq. Based on Eq. After the delineation of woody cover on the respective photos these pixel sizes were later degraded to that of the lowest resolution SPOT images i.
The GCPs mainly consisted of road and power line junctions. Due to the large number of aerial photograph and satellite image scenes, the individual RMS error values were too many to individually report but all were less than one pixel. On the older photographs the search for GCPs was rather challenging due to the relatively fewer roads and power lines that existed in the KNP then. This limited the number of GCPs to 7—9 on the old aerial photographs, in particular the photographs of the Mooiplaas site.
For this reason the aerial photographs of the north-eastern sector of the Mooiplaas site could not be georeferenced and were, therefore, not used.
After a year of speculation, they really were dating. And now, they really are having a LACMA Art+Film, Joshua Jackson, Diane Kruger. The baby is reportedly a little girl, according to “Page Six.” Back in December , when Kruger was still dating her then–long-term beau.
It's only been a few months since they made their relationship red carpet official, and now the couple is reportedly expecting their first child together. So, wait When did Diane Kruger and Norman Reedus start dating , exactly? Depends on whether or not you believe the rumors that were in circulation at one point, but Kruger and Reedus first met back in
Diane Kruger , the former high fashion model turned actress, has been dating Norman Reedus , the former high fashion model turned actor, for a little while now, but they're kept their relationship relatively low-key. Though they originally met on the set of their film, Sky, the pair made their red carpet debut only earlier this year, at the Golden Globes.
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They say opposites attract, but when it comes to love Minds were a little blown, however, when the rumors about Diane Kruger and Norman Reedus proved true. News this summer. Diane is much more analytical and thoughtful. They're very good for each other and are really happy.
Diane Kruger and Norman Reedus Are Reportedly Expecting a Child
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Joshua Jackson Talks Being Newly Single After a Decade Dating Diane Kruger
Located along the Sabie River, our rustic and elegant lodge provides all the comforts of home, yet is just meters from the Paul Kruger Gate of Kruger National Park - offering unparalleled access to the area's legendary natural beauty. Step under the indigenous portico and be transported to a different world - one reminiscent of a tree house, with elevated walkways nestled among native bird habitats. Relax in your air-conditioned room which features marble bathrooms, free Wi-Fi and modern technology. Our two hotel restaurants, Lapa and Kudyela, offer delectable dining in an convivial atmosphere. Be sure to spend time at our year-round outdoor pool or squeeze in a workout at the fitness center. And with the incredible wildlife of Kruger National Park at your doorstep, you have plenty to explore during your stay. Hear from our guests about their stay from 66 confirmed guest reviews. Dees African Spa, located here at the lodge, provides a restful retreat after a day spent exploring Mpumalanga or visiting Kruger National Park. Families will love our fantastic leisure facilities! In addition to a pool and a gym, our lodge offers miniature golf, table tennis and volleyball. Stop by Lapa Restaurant for a hearty breakfast buffet, or visit in the evening and enjoy African specialties, complemented by music and dancing! Your Stay.
Diane Kruger Has Reportedly Moved On from Joshua Jackson
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The Walking Dead’s Norman Reedus and Diane Kruger walk hand in hand as baby girl stays home
The two were all smiles as they walked hand-in-hand, even stopping for the occasional kiss. During their night out, Kruger and Reedus stopped by two local bars and were spotted kissing for nearly 30 minutes while on their walk home. The actress, 40, kept her look casual for the night, wearing a pair of jeans with a black jacket and matching boots. Kruger and Reedus previously costarred in the drama Sky. In the film, Kruger embarks on a journey of self-discovery after hooking up with a cowboy Reedus and leaving her husband. Reedus was in a five-year relationship with model Helena Christensen.
Diane Kruger and Norman Reedus Cutest Pictures
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Diane Kruger has moved on and is dating Norman Reedus
By Ian Mohr and Lindsey Kupfer. Congratulations to Diane Kruger and Norman Reedus! Kruger first sparked pregnancy buzz in May at the Cannes Film Festival. Sources told Page Six she was avoiding alcohol and wearing flowing dresses to hide the news. The actress previously dated Joshua Jackson, whom she was with for a decade. Read Next. Eliot Spitzer's girlfriend shuts down party at Elizabeth T
Diane Kruger Talks Dating Post-Joshua Jackson Breakup
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