Isochron dating creationism
Isochron dating is a common radiometric dating technique applied to date natural events like the crystallization of minerals as they cool, changes in rocks by metamorphism, or what are essentially naturally occurring shock events like meteor strikes. Minerals present in these events contain various radioactive elements which decay and the resulting daughter elements can then be used to deduce the age of the mineral through an isochron. The appeal of isochron dating is that it does not presuppose the initial amount of the daughter nuclide in the decay sequence. Indeed, the initial amount is not important because it can be found through this type of dating. Isochron dating began when scientists recognized difficulties with the assumptions of radiometric dating, especially how much of the daughter products might have been present when the mineral first formed.
The age of the earth is a central issue in creation -evolution discussions, because a young earth would not permit enough time for evolution to occur, and an old earth would contradict a literal reading of the Bible account of creation. The belief in an old earth is based on conventional dates for geological periods, which are in the hundreds of millions of years range, and are obtained by isotopic dating methods.
Standard isotopic radiometric dating techniques typically yield such dates on fossil-bearing strata. There are, however, numerous disagreements between dates produced by different isotopic dating methods, and there are many cases where the dates obtained are very different from the expected ones. Furthermore, geologists are aware of a number of factors that can cause radiometric dating methods to give bad dates, and these factors are sometimes difficult to recognize.
This already casts some doubt on isotopic dating methods. Creationists have given evidence that the geological column is much younger than hundreds of millions of years, but until now they have not had a quantitative method of measuring the age of the fossils or the geologic column. Nor have they had a uniform explanation for why isotopic dating methods give such old dates. This has put creationists at a disadvantage in discussions of dating issues, and also has been an obstacle in the widespread acceptance of a young earth.
Now there are evidences that explain why isotopic dating methods yield such old dates on fossil-bearing strata. These evidences also provide a quantitative measure of how old the fossils really are. These evidences show that the geological column on earth, at least from the Cambrian period onwards, was laid down in a few thousand years rather than the hundreds of millions of years assumed by conventional geology.
This gives strong support to the creationary viewpoint, and provides methods of dating that are more in harmony with the Biblical creation account. These evidences also explain the old ages given by conventional methods as the result of accelerated decay. It now appears that radioactive decay was much faster in the past.
This explains why isotopic dating methods typically give dates in the hundreds of millions or even billions of years on samples that are really only a few thousand years old on a young earth. These evidences do not directly establish the age of the earth or the universe, but suggest that the earth is young. In fact, a number of evidences are fitting together so well that one has to ask how much evidence is needed for a paradigm shift. How much evidence suffices for the scientific establishment to accept the fact that the geological column was laid down very rapidly, in thousands rather than millions of years?
Or is it the case that no amount of evidence will convince them? I think that the new evidences are so convincing that the scientific establishment would have a hard time refuting them in a debate. But whatever the reaction of the scientists, the evidence is now compelling enough to convince many educated people of the error of the current assumption of hundreds of millions of years for the geological column. In the past, many creationists have attempted to explain old isotopic radiometric dates by assuming that the system was disturbed.
Isotopic dates are often computed by measuring the amount of a parent substance X and the amount of a daughter substance Y into which X decays. If one assumes that at some time T in the past, no Y was present, and no X or Y entered or left the system in the meantime, then, by measuring the amount of X and Y present and knowing the speed at which X decays into Y, one can compute the age of the system, that is, the time elapsed since time T.
The more Y and the less X there is, the older the sample. This method typically gives ages in the hundreds of millions of years. Creationists often argue that the computed age is too old because Y may have been present initially, or X or Y may have entered or left the system since it was formed. However, geologists have developed sophisticated methods to account for such possibilities.
Furthermore, it seems unusual that so many different isotopic methods would give old dates if these dates resulted only from disturbances in the system. Disturbances could just as well make the dates too young as too old. Now creationists are beginning to think that a large amount of radioactive decay occurred in a short time, because the rate of decay was much faster in the past.
There are two main processes by which radioactive decay occurs, alpha decay and beta decay. In alpha decay, an alpha particle is emitted from a nucleus. An alpha particle consists of two protons and two neutrons. This is the nucleus of a helium atom, and when an alpha particle is emitted, it soon acquires electrons and becomes a helium atom. Thus helium is produced by alpha decay. The other main method of decay is beta decay, in which an electron or a positron is emitted from the nucleus and a neutron becomes a proton, or vice versa.
Another way that this can happen is if an electron is captured by the nucleus. If rates of decay were faster in the past, then it is reasonable to assume that alpha decay and beta decay would be sped up by different amounts, because they are such different processes. The first evidence for accelerated decay in the past has to do with the dating of zircons. Zircons have the element zirconium in them, together with other elements.
They are often used for jewelry. Zircons are used for isotopic dating because their crystal structure incorporates uranium and thorium but not lead, making them suitable for uranium-lead and thorium-lead dating. Uranium and thorium decay into lead, so one can assume that the lead in the zircon results from decay, and thus compute the age of the zircon. Although this assumption has its limitations, the idea is basically sound. Zircons on earth give dates up to about 4 billion years.
Uranium and thorium decay into lead by a complex series of steps, of which a number involve alpha decay. Thus helium is produced. This helium should diffuse out of the zircon rapidly. Therefore if the zircons were really hundreds of millions or even billions of years old, there should be no helium left in them that resulted from such decay. However, a significant amount of helium has been found in some zircons that give isotopic dates of 1.
Until recently, no one had measured the rate of diffusion of helium in zircons. Using this data, the ages of these zircons were computed [Humphreys et al 03]. In other words, an age was computed consistent with the amount of helium remaining in the zircon. The ages computed in this way are between 4, and 14, years! These results support the hypothesis of accelerated nuclear decay and represent strong scientific evidence for the young world of Scripture.
This shows that alleged isotopic dates of 1. This suggests that all these old isotopic dates correspond to very young true dates. However, these results do not yet show that even older dates are in this time range. It would be interesting to test zircons having even older isotopic dates to see how much helium they contain, and to test more zircons to see if this helium retention is a universal phenomenon. The next evidence for a recent creation is provided by carbon 14 dates.
Carbon 14 is produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic rays and then slowly decays. The older an organic sample is, the less carbon 14 it will contain because the sample will not be absorbing new carbon 14 after it dies. An astonishing discovery made over the past twenty years is that, almost without exception, when tested by highly sensitive accelerator mass spectrometer AMS methods, organic samples from every portion of the fossil record show detectable amounts of 14C!
This implies that the entire geologic column from the Cambrian period onward is less than 57, years old. Some of the researchers tried to explain this carbon 14 as contamination, but none of their attempts to clean it were successful, and other evidence indicated that this carbon 14 was not contamination. Organic matter consistently has a higher 14C ratio than Precambrian inorganic matter. This shows that this carbon 14 is not noise and not contamination.
If the carbon 14 arose from noise in the measurement process or from contamination, then one would not expect to find such systematic differences. The amount of carbon 14 must therefore indicate that these samples are very young. Here we have additional evidence that samples alleged to be hundreds of millions of years old are in fact 60, years old or less.
If decay were accelerated in the past, the true age would be even less than 60, years. There is also reason to believe that the biomass before the flood may have been times larger than it is today, which would dilute carbon 14 by a factor of or more. This corresponds to six or seven half lives of carbon, or to an age of about 40, years. Thus the ages of these samples would be brought down to the 10, to 20, year range, and with accelerated decay the ages would be even less, consistent with the Biblical account.
Another factor to consider is that there may have been less carbon 14 before the flood; the amount of carbon 14 in the atmosphere appears to be increasing even today. This would make the ages even younger. There is even measurable carbon 14 in diamonds! Baumgardner [Wieland 03] sent a diamond for C dating. It was the first time this had been attempted, and the answer came back positive—i.
This is exceptionally striking evidence, because a diamond has remarkably powerful lattice bonds, so there is no way that subsequent biological contamination can be expected to find its way into the interior. And this age is brought down still further now that the helium diffusion results have so strongly affirmed dramatic past acceleration of radioactive decay. The fact that isotopic dates are generally too old by hundreds of millions of years, but Carbon 14 dates are only too old by thousands of years, is also evidence for accelerated decay, because Carbon 14 decays much faster.
In general, one would expect that if decay were accelerated, all radioactive decay systems would have about the same amount of extra decay. This is especially true if the cause of the accelerated decay was a large amount of radiation hitting the earth, because a nucleus that was hit by radiation would receive a large amount of energy and would be likely to decay, regardless of its half life.
Carbon 14 has a short half life, meaning that it is relatively unstable and decays rapidly, so the number of atoms per unit time that decay is large. Uranium, thorium, and other substances used for isotopic dating have much larger half lives, almost all of them in the billions of years range. This means that these substances are comparatively stable and decay events are very rare, so the number of atoms per unit time that decay is very small.
Therefore, if there are N extra decay events in a unit of time, these extra decay events would proportionally affect the number of Carbon 14 decays by a much smaller amount than the number of uranium and thorium decays. This means that the age computed from Carbon 14 would be increased by a much smaller proportion than the ages computed from uranium-lead and thorium-lead decay. In fact, this is what is observed, with Carbon 14 ages typically in the 60, year range or less, but uranium and thorium ages typically in the hundreds of millions of years.
Here is a table of some common half lives, showing how much longer many half lives are than the half life of carbon Therefore they may not be affected the same amount by an increase in the decay rate. So discordances between alpha and beta decay ages are an evidence of disturbed decay. To sum up, the following are the evidences one would expect from accelerated decay in the past: Carbon 14 ages should be much younger than other isotopic ages like K-Ar, U-Pb, et cetera.
Alpha and beta ages should differ. And ages computed from elements with long half lives should be more affected than ages computed from elements with short half lives.
The Bible is quite clear about the origin and timeframe for the creation of Earth and the cosmos. If Scripture is inaccurate in this, then how can it. An article examining the a topic within radiometric dating, Isochron Dating.
The age of the earth is a central issue in creation -evolution discussions, because a young earth would not permit enough time for evolution to occur, and an old earth would contradict a literal reading of the Bible account of creation. The belief in an old earth is based on conventional dates for geological periods, which are in the hundreds of millions of years range, and are obtained by isotopic dating methods. Standard isotopic radiometric dating techniques typically yield such dates on fossil-bearing strata. There are, however, numerous disagreements between dates produced by different isotopic dating methods, and there are many cases where the dates obtained are very different from the expected ones.
The Bible is quite clear about the origin and timeframe for the creation of Earth and the cosmos. If Scripture is inaccurate in this, then how can it be trusted in anything else?
It is not as well publicized as its larger close neighbour Mt Ruapehu, which has erupted briefly several times in the last five years. Mt Ngauruhoe is thought to have been active for at least 2, years, with more than 70 eruptive periods since , when European settlers first recorded a steam eruption.
The Iconic Isochron: Radioactive Dating, Part 2
The simplest form of isotopic age computation involves substituting three measurements into an equation of four variables, and solving for the fourth. The equation is the one which describes radioactive decay:. Solving the equation for "age," and incorporating the computation of the original quantity of parent isotope, we get:. Some assumptions have been made in the discussion of generic dating, for the sake of keeping the computation simple. Such assumptions will not always be accurate in the real world.
So slick and convincing are the presentations of results, particularly in glossy media and museum propaganda, that no one even bothers to question how these dating methods work, what assumptions are involved, and how reliable they are. Such questions, however, are highly relevant. The big surprise is that the attack has come from an evolutionary geologist and has been published in a secular scientific journal! But more of that in a moment. Thus the first step in the radioactive dating technique is to measure the amounts of the parent and daughter elements isotopes in a rock sample via chemical analyses. This is done in specially equipped laboratories with sophisticated instruments capable of very good precision and accuracy, so in general there is no quarrel with the resulting chemical analyses. However, it is with the interpretation of the chemical analyses of the radioactive parents and resultant daughters that the problems with radioactive dating of rocks begin. These assumptions are:. So that these assumptions are easily understood, they are best explained in the context of the hourglass analogy see Figure 1.
Isochron dating is a common technique of radiometric dating and is applied to date certain events, such as crystallization , metamorphism , shock events, and differentiation of precursor melts, in the history of rocks. Isochron dating can be further separated into mineral isochron dating and whole rock isochron dating ; both techniques are applied frequently to date terrestrial and also extraterrestrial rocks meteorites.
Radioactive decay has become one of the most useful methods for determining the age of formation of rocks. However, in the very principal of radiometric dating there are several vital assumptions that have to be made in order for the age to be considered valid. These assumptions include:
Вниз. Скорее. Еще одна спираль. Ему все время казалось, что Беккер совсем рядом, за углом. Одним глазом он следил за тенью, другим - за ступенями под ногами. Вдруг Халохоту показалось, что тень Беккера как бы споткнулась. Она совершила судорожный рывок влево и вроде бы закружилась в воздухе, а затем снова прильнула к центру лестницы.
Халохот сделал стремительный прыжок. Вот. На ступенях прямо перед Халохотом сверкнул какой-то металлический предмет. Он вылетел из-за поворота на уровне лодыжек подобно рапире фехтовальщика. Халохот попробовал отклониться влево, но не успел и со всей силы ударился об него голенью.
Тело Грега Хейла растворилось в темноте, и Сьюзан, инстинктивно поджав ноги, прикрылась пиджаком Стратмора. В шифровалке никогда еще не было так тихо, здесь всегда слышался гул генераторов. Теперь все умолкло, так что можно было различить облегченный вздох раненого чудовища - ТРАНСТЕКСТА, постепенно стихающее шипение и посвистывание, сопутствующие медленному охлаждению. Сьюзан закрыла глаза и начала молиться за Дэвида. Ее молитва была проста: она просила Бога защитить любимого человека.
А потом решил отплатить ей той же монетой. Он начал подписывать свои записки Любовь без воска, Дэвид. Таких посланий она получила больше двух десятков. И все был подписаны одинаково: Любовь без воска. Она просила его открыть скрытый смысл этих слов, но Дэвид отказывался и только улыбался: Из нас двоих ты криптограф. Главный криптограф АНБ испробовала все - подмену букв, шифровальные квадраты, даже анаграммы. Она пропустила эти слова через компьютер и поставила перед ним задачу переставить буквы в новую фразу.
На полпути к ТРАНСТЕКСТУ тишина шифровалки нарушилась. Где-то в темноте, казалось, прямо над ними, послышались пронзительные гудки. Стратмор повернулся, и Сьюзан сразу же его потеряла. В страхе она вытянула вперед руки, но коммандер куда-то исчез. Там, где только что было его плечо, оказалась черная пустота. Она шагнула вперед, но и там была та же пустота.
- Чем же отличаются эти чертовы изотопы. Никто этого не знает? - Ответа он не дождался. Техники и все прочие беспомощно смотрели на ВР. Джабба повернулся к монитору и вскинул руки. - Почему среди нас нет ни одного ядерного физика.
Ангел-хранитель. - И, полагаю, если с Танкадо что-нибудь случится, эта загадочная личность продаст ключ. - Хуже. Если Танкадо убьют, этот человек опубликует пароль. - Его партнер опубликует ключ? - недоуменно переспросила Сьюзан. Стратмор кивнул: - Он разместит его в Интернете, напечатает в газетах, на рекламных щитах.How to solve radiometric dating problems